Adequacy of calcium and vitamin D enriches probiotic bacteria and reduces dysbiotic Parasutterela bacteria and inflammation in the colon of C57BL/6 mice fed a Western-style diet Huawei Zeng1*, Bryan D Safratowich1, Zhenhua Liu2, Michael R Bukowski1, Suzanne L Ishaq3 1U. S. Department of Agriculture, ARS, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND 58203; 2 School of Public Health, Univ of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003; 3 School of Food and Agriculture, Univ of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 * Correspondence to: firstname.lastname@example.org Adoption of an obesogenic diet low in calcium and vitamin D (CaD) leads to increased obesity, colonic inflammation, and cancer. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that CaD supplementation may reduce colonic inflammation, oncogenic signaling, and dysbiosis in the colon of C57BL/6 mice fed a Western diet. Male C57/BL6 mice (4-wk old) were assigned to 3 dietary groups for 36 wks: (1) AIN76A as a control diet (AIN); (2) a defined rodent “new Western diet” (NWD); or (3) NWD with CaD supplementation (NWD/CaD). Compared to the AIN, mice receiving the NWD or NWD/CaD exhibited more than 0.2-fold increase in the levels of plasma leptin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and body weight. The levels of plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6), inflammatory cell infiltration, and b-catenin/Ki67 protein (oncogenic signaling) were increased more than 0.8-fold in the NWD (but not NWD/CaD) group compared to the AIN group. Consistent with the inflammatory phenotype, colonic secondary bile acid (BA, inflammatory bacterial metabolite) levels increased more than 0.4-fold in the NWD group compared to the NWD/CaD and AIN groups. Furthermore, the α diversity of colonic bacterial species, indicative of health, was decreased by 30%; and the abundance of colonic Proteobacteria phylum (e.g., Parasutterela genus), considered signatures of dysbiosis, was increased more than 4-fold in the NWD group compared to the AIN and NWD/CaD groups. However, only the abundance of Parasutterella was positively correlated with inflammatory cell infiltration. These data indicate that Parasutterella genus may be a more sensitive dysbiosis marker than Proteobacteria phylum in the context of Western diet consumption. Collectively, CaD adequacy enriches probiotic bacteria and reduces dysbiotic bacteria and inflammation in the colon of mice fed a Western diet. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by USDA, ARS, CRIS project (3062-51000-050-00D).
USDA-ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center
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