IL-33 induced by dysbiosis in vaginal microbiota contributes to impaired antiviral immunity against herpes simplex virus infection
Ji Eun Oh1, Heung Kyu Lee1 1Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea
Commensal microbiota are well known to play an important role in antiviral immunity by providing immune inductive signals; however, the consequence of dysbiosis on antiviral immunity remains unclear. We demonstrate that dysbiosis caused by oral antibiotic treatment directly impairs antiviral immunity following viral infection of the vaginal mucosa. Antibiotic-treated mice succumbed to mucosal herpes simplex virus type 2 infection more rapidly than water-fed mice, and also showed delayed viral clearance at the site of infection. However, innate immune responses including type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine production at infection sites, as well as induction of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in draining lymph nodes, were not impaired in antibiotic-treated mice. By screening the factors controlling antiviral immunity, we found that interleukin-33, an alarmin released in response to tissue damage, was secreted from vaginal epithelium after the depletion of commensal microbiota. This cytokine suppresses local antiviral immunity by blocking the migration of effector T cells to the vaginal tissue, thereby inhibiting the production of interferon-γ, a critical cytokine for antiviral defense, at local infection sites. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of homeostasis maintained by commensal bacteria, and reveal a deleterious consequence of dysbiosis in antiviral immune defense.
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