Changes in the Gut Microbiota of Nigerian Children from Birth till 12 Months

Identification: Oyedemi, Omolanke


Description

Changes in the Gut Microbiota of Nigerian Children from Birth till 12 Months
 
Temitope O. Oyedemi1, Funmilola A. Ayeni1, Jenny C. Martin2, Sophie Shaw3, Karen P. Scott2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 3centre For Genome Enabled Biology and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
 
Background
The early gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping the immune system and improving the health and development of infants. Different factors contribute to the infant gut colonization which includes gestational age, mode of delivery, diet and antibiotic treatment. Many studies in Western countries have reported the effect of these factors on the gut microbiota of children but there are no studies in Nigeria where prenatal and postnatal care is quite different. Nigerian infants weaning diet such as millet, maize and sorghum are very rich in fibre, these are fermented by the gut bacteria to produce Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs). We investigated the changes in the gut microbiota of Nigerian children from birth to 12 months based on mode of delivery and diet, as well as their metabolite production.
 
Methods
A prospective study of 30 babies, feacal samples were collected monthly from birth. DNA from each feacal sample was extracted and the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplified using  27_Miseq fusion barcoded primer and amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq v3 flowcell. Sequences were analysed using DADA2 software.  Diversity analysis was performed using QIIME. SCFAs were analysed using acidified water extraction and direct-injection gas chromatography.
 
Results
A rise in sample richness is observed over time from 7-12 months with appearance and increase in Bacteroidetes and decrease in Proteobacteria which may be the effect of Nigerian diet. There is no significant difference in the microbiota between normal birth and caesarean section but exclusive breastfed babies showed abundance of specific bacterial groups and mixed fed babies enriched in Bifidobacteria. The introduction of Nigeria diet had a specific effect with appearance of butyrate.
 
Conclusion
The study shows that the infant's gut microbiota has a lower but stable diversity between 1-6 months and a higher diversity from 7-12 months. Observed increased in acetate and lactate in the pre-weaning samples and appearance of butyrate post-weaning.  
 
Acknowledgement
This study was supported by Global Challenge Research Fund Internal Pump Priming Fund (GCRF-IPPF).

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