Myeloid Cell Activation and Kinetics in the Brain Marco Prinz Institute of Neuropathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
The diseased brain hosts a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells, including parenchymal microglia, perivascular cells, meningeal macrophages and blood-borne monocytes. To date, the different types of brain myeloid cells have been discriminated solely on the basis of their localization, morphology and surface epitope expression. However, recent data suggest that resident microglia may be functionally distinct from bone marrow- or blood-derived phagocytes, which invade the CNS under pathological conditions. During the last few years, research on brain myeloid cells has been markedly changed by the advent of new tools in imaging, genetics and immunology. These methodologies have yielded unexpected results, which challenge the traditional view of brain macrophages. On the basis of these new studies brain myeloid subtypes can be differentiated with regard to their origin, function and fate in the brain (1,2).
References: 1) Prinz M, Priller J: Microglia and brain macrophages in the molecular age: from origin to neuropsychiatric disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014 May;15(5):300-12. 2) Goldmann T, Wieghofer P, Jordão MJ, Prutek F, Hagemeyer N, Frenzel K, Amann L, Staszewski O, Kierdorf K, Krueger M, Locatelli G, Hochgerner H, Zeiser R, Epelman S, Geissmann F, Priller J, Rossi FM, Bechmann I, Kerschensteiner M, Linnarsson S, Jung S, Prinz M. Origin, fate and dynamics of macrophages at central nervous system interfaces. Nat Immunol. 2016 Jul;17(7):797-805.
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