The antimycobacterial, cytotoxic and hepatoprotective effects of some Menispermaceae species
R.T. Akande1,2, I. Famuyide1, A. Aro3, S.M. Nkadimeng1, T. Hlokwe4, L.J. McGaw1
1Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. 2Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission, Abuja, Nigeria. 3Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Florida, South Africa. 4Bacteriology Section, Agricultural Research Council—Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of worldwide occurrence. Millions of people are infected and fall sick annually. The rate of mortality by tuberculosis is much higher than any other bacterial infections. Some species of the Menispermaceae family are used locally for cough and tuberculosis related symptoms. This study was carried out to verify the traditional use of the plants. In this study, hot water was used for extraction of the dried, ground plant material. The antimycobacterial effects of Cissampelos owariensis (whole plant), Cissampelos mucronata (leaf and stem) and Tinospora fragosa (aerial parts) were evaluated using a two-fold broth dilution method against non-pathogenic and pathogenic mycobacterial strains. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined against African monkey kidney (Vero) cells using an MTT assay. The hepatoprotective effects was evaluated using rifampicin and acetaminophen as toxicants against HepG2 liver cells. The hot water extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 12.5 – 940 µg/ml. The extracts had low cytotoxicity to Vero cells (˃100 µg/ml) and were protective on the damaged-induced liver cells. Further studies are continuing on other biological effects of the extracts.