Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey of Zoonotic Tuberculosis prevention and associated determinants amongst Livestock Workers in Punjab, Pakistan.
Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1*, Ubaid-ur-Rehman Zia1, Abrar Hussain1, Muhammad Bilal1, Touseef Ahmed2, Sabir Hussain3, Muhammad Zain Akhtar4
1* Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
2 Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA
3 Department of Infectious Diseases and Public Health. Jockey Club College of Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences,
City University of Hong Kong
4 Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
Pakistan is among those countries having high Tuberculosis (TB) burden and Zoonotic TB is a neglected significant public health disease. This study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of Zoonotic Tuberculosis disease spread and prevention among the herdsmen in Pakistan to provide the evidences for policy making in context of One Health.
A cross sectional survey (n=351) was conducted in 4 different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of herdsmen were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to study the association between education level of respondents with different associated risk factors of zoonotic tuberculosis.
Of 351 participants, 61%(n=214) were unaware about the zoonotic transmission of tuberculosis. Majority 78.3% (n=275) of respondents used to visit the hospital only when they get severely ill. Regarding the attitude towards disease, (35.9%(n=126)) herdsmen prefer to sell the infected animals to earn the instant profit and put the public at risk of getting zoonotic TB. Another high-risk activity under practice by the ever effected with TB was the use of unpasteurized milk ꭓ2(1) =6.146, p=0.013. The dung removal by naked hands was also found significantly associated with ever effected respondents ꭓ2(1) =11.024, p=0.0009. Majority of respondents 62.7% have not heard about the TB control program in Pakistan. The illiteracy had significant association with not knowing the TB control program (p<0.05).
The studies like this in developing countries are needed and would play a key role for designing of enlightenment program addressing One Health challenges of transmission, handling of infected cattle and seeking urgent human medical check-up. It also would be helpful in spreading awareness which will lead to early detection of cases enhancing the contribution towards the Road Map for Zoonotic Tuberculosis by WHO which resonates that every tuberculosis case counts towards 2030 End-TB Strategy.