Prevalence, Drug compliance and Mortality rate amongst suspected Tuberculosis patients attending LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Ogbomoso Nigeria
Adeniji T.W1, Olowookere A.K1, Olaniyan A.M1, Olaniyi J.O2, Adeniji O.A3, Adisa T.A1, Adetutu F.J1, Odugbemi P.O1.
Department of Medical Microbiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; TB DOTS Clinic, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; Medical Microbiology Department, Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Tuberculosis (TB) is the world’s most ancient epidemic disease and a severe opportunistic disease in HIV/AIDS patients. Tuberculosis remains an extraordinarily burdensome global health epidemic, estimated at 10.4 million new infections, of which 10% were among children and 12% included co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is the reservoir of tuberculosis epidemic. Nearly 50 percent of all TB patients do not complete therapy leading to prolonged infectiousness, relapse, drug resistance and death. The impediment encountered by patients to a specific treatment regimen, has increased the understanding of compliance as a complex behavioral challenge, affected by many variables including gender and HIV/AIDS. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of TB, level of drug compliance and mortality rate among suspected TB patients.
This cross sectional study was carried out at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, among patients who visited the hospital between year 2016 and 2019. The 1,183 patients that met the eligibility criteria were screened using Zeihl Neelsen staining techniques (Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) Smear Microscopy). Retroviral Screening was performed using DETERMINE, UNIGOLD and STATPAK rapid diagnostic kits. Those with positive AFB smear were placed on Direct Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) with four fixed dose combination of Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Ethamutol as therapy, based on their body weight.
The study showed that 68 (5.7%) of the suspected patients were AFB smear positive, 42(62%) were males, 26(38%) were females. Prevalence across age brackets are 13%, 53%, 26%, 6% and 2% respectively among age groups 0-20yrs, 21-40yrs, 41-60yrs, 61-80yrs, and 81-100yrs. Only 3(4.4%) out of the AFB smear positive patients were reactive to Retroviral screening. 54(80%) completed their therapy based on degree of drug compliance and were cured, 5(7%) did not complete therapy 2 of which were retroviral positive, 2(3%) developed Multidrug resistance TB, and 7(10%) eventually died.
In conclusion, this study revealed prevalence of the infection, poor drug compliance amongst individuals with TB-HIV co-infection and the emergence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis which calls for more public education in this regard.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, Drug Compliance.